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Sunday, May 27, 2007

Environmental Pollution

We may reduce environmental pollution for our well beings as they can causes serious threats and harmful health hazards not only to man but also to all organism living in this environment. So we should take proper control measures to reduce the pollution of Air, Water and Noise. If not it will lead to serious problems to all organisms in future.

How can we reduce Air Pollution

Ø New engine systems for automobiles should be designed for reduced emission of polluting gases.

Ø Increasing the heights of chimneys of factories may help to reduce air pollution.

Ø More and More trees are to planned as they can absorb most of CO2 .

How can we reduce Noise pollution

Ø Air horns should be banned near thickly populated areas, Hospitals and Schools.

Ø Ear protective devices such as ear plugs should be supplied to those working in noisy factories.
Ø Avoid Loud Speakers in public places.

Ø Low sound crackers should be used in festivals.

How can we reduce Water Pollution

Ø Proper treatment should be given to the Sewage before dumping off.

Ø Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides should have to be minimized.

Ø Non-biodegradable soaps and detergents should be banned.

Noise Pollution

The Major Causes for Noise Pollution are :

ØAutomobiles : Horns and alarms from automobiles and Industries produces loud Noises which is harmful to health.

ØMachineries : Wear and Tear of Machineries produce Loud and unpleasant Noise, causes hearing problems

ØCrackers & Loud Speakers : Nowadays Crackers are part of Festivals which produces sounds more than 90 db which is not good for health, Loud Speakers used in general meetings makes loud Noise may even cause mental distractions.

Air Pollution

The Major Causes for Air Pollution are :

ØAutomobiles : Burning of fossil fuels produce Carbon Oxides such as CO2, CO [ Green House Gases ] causes depletion of Ozone layer.

ØIndustries : Most of the Industries are releasing huge amount gases causes pollution, some of the gases are even poisonous.

ØCoal Mines : Coal Mining and burning of which produces large quantity of green house gases causes depletion of ozone layer.

Water Pollution

The Major Causes for Water Pollution are :
Ø Sewage Disposal : Contains wastes from community including human excreta causes foul Odour, imparts Colour and induces Turbidity.
Ø Dumping Industrial Wastes and Other Organic materials : Causes depletion of Dissolve Oxygen results in the death of aquatic organisms
Ø Soaps, Detergents and Pesticides : May cause acute problems on aquatic organisms and drinking of which is harmful to Health

Saturday, April 21, 2007

Reserpine against poisons

Reserpine an extract obtained from Rauwolfia is very powerful against poisons it act as anti venomous.

Serpentine’s botanical name is Rauwolfia serpentina. It is of family Apocynaceae. Its M.U.P is Root.

It is very useful against snake bites and insect bites. it is used as a remedy for dysentery and other painful infections of the internal canal. it is universally employed as an internal remedy against cholera and dysentery. Leaf juice instilled into the eyes as a remedy for the removal of opaquesities of cornea

Nobel Prizes in 1909

In 1909 August M.F & A.Beernaet won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1909 T. Kocher won the Nobel Prize

In 1909 Selma Lagerlof won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1908

In 1908 K.P Amoldson won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1908 Ernest Rutherford won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1908 Paul Ehrilich & E.Metchnikoff won the Nobel Prize

In 1908 R. Eucken won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1907

In 1907 E.T Moneta won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1907 E. Buchner won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1907 C.L.A Laveran Cajal & Camillo Golgi won the Nobel Prize

In 1907 Rudyard Kipling won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1906

In 1906 L. Roosevelt won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1906 Henry Moissan won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1906 S. Ramon Cajal & Camillo Golgi won the Nobel Prize

In 1906 Giosue Carlucci won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1905

In 1905 Bertha von Suttner won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1905 Adolf von Baeyer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1905 Robert Koch won the Nobel Prize

In 1905 H. Sienkiewicz won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1904

In 1904 Institute of International Law (Belgium) won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1904 Lord Rayleigh won the Nobel Prize in Physics

In 1904 Sir W. Ramsay won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1904 Ivan P Pavlov (Denmark) won the Nobel Prize

In 1904 F. Mistral & Jose Echegaray won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1903

In 1903 Sir W.R Cremer won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1903 A.H Becquerel, Pierre & Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in Physics

In 1903 S.A Arrhenius won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1903 N.R Finsen (Denmark) won the Nobel Prize

In 1903 B.Bjornson won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1902

Nobel Prizes in 1902

In 1902 Eile Ducommun (Switzerland) & A. Gobal won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1902 H.A Lorentz & P.Zeeman (Holland) won the Nobel Prize in Physics

In 1902 Emil H. Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1902 Sir Ronald Rose (England) won the Nobel Prize

In 1902 T.Mommsen (Germany) won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Nobel Prizes in 1901

In 1901 Jean H. Dunant (Switzerland) & Frederick Passy (France) won the Nobel Prize for Peace

In 1901 W.K Roentgen (Germany) won the Nobel Prize in Physics

In 1901 J.H Vant Hoff won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 1901 E.A Von Behering (Germany) won the Nobel Prize

In 1901 Rene F.A Sully prudhoome (France) won the Nobel Prize for Literature

Friday, April 6, 2007

Multiple Alleles

Alleles are the alternative form of gene. Dominant allele is called Wild type and Recessive allele is called Mutant.


Multiple alleles occurs same locus in homologous chromosomes.

Only 2 alleles in a multiple series will be present in a diploid organism

Gametes bear only one allele as they are haploid

Multiple alleles controls same characters though their manifestation are different

They often show dominant recessive relation.

Examples for Multiple Alleles are

Coat Colour in Rabbits

ABO Blood Group

Self Sterility in Tobacco

Plant Hybridization

Natural variability present in land varieties are exhausted quickly when they are subjected to selection, gentle variability  should be introduced in a plant population for further improvement.

Hybridization is the crossing of two dissimilar genotypes. For getting multiple superiorities over the parents.

Three Major factors need to be considered for successful hybridization are:

  1. Prevention of Self Pollination in Female Parents
  2. Prevention of Pollination in Female parents by unidentified pollen grains
  3. Ensuring pollination in selected mate plants.
The Main objective of Hybridization are:
  • To create genetic variability
  • Transfer of adaptive characters
  • Utilization of hybrid vigour
Procedure for Hybridization:

After identifying the objectives, the breeder has to follow these steps to get  successful hybrid plant.
  1. Choice of Parents
  2. Evaluation of Parents
  3. Emasculation
  4. Bagging
  5. Tagging
  6. Pollination
  7. Harvesting and storing of F1 seeds
  8. Raising the F1 generation
  9. Selfing
  10. Selection

Sunday, April 1, 2007

Application of Microbial Processes

o Fuel and Energy

o Waste treatment and utilization

o Cellulose conversion for food and fuel

o Antibiotics and vaccines

As Nitrogen fixers: It converts Atmospheric Nitrogen into Nitrates and Nitrites which Plants can utilize. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are of different types, they are

o Free living

o Symbiotic

o Associative


o Biofertilizers

Soil microbes in plant health and nutrition

o Rhizosphere effect

o Mineral cycling by soil microorganisms

o Biological control of soil borne pathogens

Food & animal feed

o Food preservation

o Improvement of nutritional value

o Single cell protein

Benefits of Microbial processes to mankind:

o World health has improved trough the discovery of microbial causes of most human, animal and plant diseases, leading to the development of vaccines, antibiotics and chemicals to combat many of these diseases.

o Foods have been improved in quality and protected from spoilage to enable wide distribution and storage against times of need.

o Sewage treatment methods have been developed to break the chain of disease transfer through waterborne pathogens

o Farming practices have been improved through recognizing and capitalizing on the role of soil microorganisms; microbes have been used to breakdown crop residues for reuse by new crops. Nitrogen fixing organisms have been used to inoculate legumes.

o Microbial fermentation processes have provided foods, beverages, medicines and chemicals for human use.

Organisms used in microbial processes

o Bacteria:

o Characteristics: Single celled organisms: spherical, rod and spiral forms. Most of them are saprophytes

Uses: break down organic mater and assist soil fertility, waste disposal, biogas production and source of antibiotics and other useful chemicals

o Fungi:

o Characteristics: plants devoid of chlorophylls; variety of forms; microscopic molds, mildews, rusts and smuts; mushrooms and puffballs.

o Uses: assisting recycling cellulose, lignin and other complex plant constituents; yeasts and mushrooms are important in food and nutrition; many are also used in chemical and pharmaceutical industries; tools in genetics and biotechnology; antagonists for biological control of pests and diseases.

o Algae:

o Characteristics: undifferentiated plants (Thallophytes)

o Uses: red and brown sea weeds are important foods. Red algae produce agar. Some blue green algae fix nitrogen. Major food for ocean fishes. Yields bio-fertilizers, bioactive compounds and functional foods.

o Protozoa:

o Characteristics: microscopic animals. Single celled or groups of similar cells, found in fresh and sea water, in soils and as parasites in animals, man and some plants.

o Uses: assist in breakdown of organic matter such as cellulose in ruminant nutrition.

o Viruses:

o Characteristics: sub microscopic forms; considered intermediate between living and non living. Infective agents, capable of multiplying only in living cells; composed of proteins and nucleic acids.

o Uses: important as carriers of genetic information. Also cause diseases in insects and other pests. Research is directed to their use in biological pest control.

Chromosome Theory of Linkage

This theory was proposed by T.H Morgan, he has conducted many experiments in drosophila. He has got Nobel Prize in 1933

It consists of four points they are

Genes that show linkage are situated on same chromosome

Genes are Linearly arranged in Chromosomes

the strength of linkage is directly propotional to the distance between the genes

During the course of inheritance linked genes remain in their original combinations.

Two genes in a heterozygous individual shows “Cis” or “Trans” type of arrangement

Collaborator Genes

These are Genes that present in the chromosomes shows intergenic interaction. These genes located in 2 loci controlling the same trait and interact to produce some totally new traits or phenotypes that neither of the genes alone can produce the inheritance.

Eg: Comb pattern in Poultry [9:3:3:1]

The genes involved are RRpp for Rose Comb and rrPP for Pea Comb. These interact and modify the single comb, basic type of comb pattern to walnut type.

The Progenies Phenotypes are

Walnut Comb = 9

Rose Cob = 3

Pea Comb = 3

Single Comb = 1

Thursday, March 1, 2007

Agrobacterium Mediated Gene Transfer: Applications

Agrobacterium are gram –ve bacteria of family Rhibiaceae.they are often found in rhizosphere region of plants and are pathogenic. Their phytogenetic activity is listed below

Agrobacterium tumifaciance: Induces Crown gall disease
Agrobacterium rhizogens: Induce hairy root disease

The pathogenic activity agrobacterium species are acquired due to the presence of certain very large plasmids known as Ti (Tumour inducing) and R i(Root inducing)  plasmids.

Ti Plasmid - Image Source

A.tumifaciance is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells causing tumours.These plasmids have specific regions for producing phytohormones and special amino acid [Opines] synthesizing region, which form the carbon source.

The plasmids gets incorporated into the plant genome during infection and which inturn  results in causing disease in plant.

It is the first identified successful gene transformation applicable for plants. It is considered as “nature’s most efficient plant genetic engineer”.

Application of Agrobacterium in Genetic Engineering

These plasmids are very useful in transferring gene into the plant genome, so desired gene can be cloned into these plasmids and transferred. virulence region can be removed and can be successfully used in gene transfer.

Mushroom Cultivation

Mushroom Cultivation: A Process which can be done at home

Mushrooms are simple achlorophyllous (non green) plants. Mushrooms suddenly appear on logs, termite mounts and grasslands during monsoon and lives only for a few days. These ephemeral organisms include edible, non-edible, medicinal and poisonous species. Edible species are excellent and have been used as food from pre-historic times. But poisonous species, if accidentally consumed, results in toxicity which may become fatal. Cultivation of edible species for consumption is the only solution to avoid such accidents.

Types of Mushrooms

Fifty thousand species of mushrooms have been discovered. Among them, 20.000 are edible, 20 have been cultivated and 6 have been produced on commercial scale. These are

  1. Button mushroom, 
  2. Oyster mushroom,
  3. Paddy straw mushroom,
  4. Shiitake mushroom,
  5. Ear mushroom and
  6. Milky mushrooms.

Among these, button, oyster, paddy straw and milky are cultivated in India.

mushroom cultivation process

As far as the flavour is concerned, button mushroom is the most relished. But its cultivation is limited to cooler regions of the world. In south India, it is cultivated in Ooty. Cultivation of this species in other regions needs control of climate. For example, air conditioners are required to lower the temperature in culture rooms. Therefore, in places like Kerala, this species is not cultivated. Instead, high temperature tolerant species like Calocybe and Pleurutus are suitable.
Need for Mushroom Cultivation

Recently there is added interest in mushrooms for many reasons. It is the only crop that can be harvested in 2-3 weeks. Its flavour is unique and nutritional qualities are superior to vegetables. Its protein is complete and calorie is low. Many species have medicinal properties. Some have anti- tumour activity, some are anti-aging and some have hypo-lipidemic action. Production technology is simple and requires lesser input than other industries. Demand for mushroom is increasing the world over and supply is small. It is a growing industry and there is potential for employment generation. Another advantage for mushroom cultivation is its utility in agro-industrial waste processing. Thus, it is a useful technology for waste management also.

Courtesy: Dr.P.Balakrishnan

Saturday, February 24, 2007



Ø Totipotency
Ø Embryo Culture
Ø Single Cell Culture
Ø Micropropagation
Ø Haploid Culture
Ø Somaclonal Variation
Ø Suspension Culture
Ø Artificial Seed
Ø Protoplast Culture




Ø Transfer via agrobacterium spp.
Ø Transfer via electroporation
Ø Transfer via polyethylene glycol [PEG]
Ø Transfer via biolistics
Ø Transfer of microinjection
Ø Liposome Mediated Gene Transfer
Ø Transformation using pollen or pollen tube
Ø Incubation of Dry seeds, Embryos, Tissues or Cells in DNA
Ø Transfer by using Ultrasonification


Biotechnology research is increasingly contributing to the improved production and propagation of new cultivated varieties of plants that have a direct role in agricultural practices. In relation to nutritional quality, food output and other useful substances. Some of the important aspects of biotechnology which can be categorized under the following heads:

Ø Micropropagation for biomass energy production.

Ø Production of disease free, disease resistant, insect resistant, herbicide resistant plants.

Ø Induction & Selection of Mutant.

Ø Production of somatic hybrids.

Ø Production of transgenic plants.

Ø Industrial biotechnology.