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Monday, March 16, 2009

Structure, Replication, Symptoms, Transmission, Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV / AIDS

AIDS: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

• AIDS is the Deadliest Pandemic in humans and it is caused by a RNA virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

• AIDS is The Last Stage of  HIV Infection.

• First Identified By Dr.Luc Montagnier & His Collegues.

• It is Estimated That 8-10 Millions Adults & 1 Million Chliderns World Wide Are Infected With HIV Virus.

• AIDS is one of The Sexually Transmitted Disease.

• 73% HIV is Aquired By Sexual Contact.

• The First Aids Case In India Was In 1986 From Chennai, Since Then There Is Been A Rapid Spread Of HIV Infection All Over The Country.

• 80% Of Males & 20% Females Almost 90% With Hiv Were In The Age Group 15-40 Years.

• AIDS  Is Received From The Infected Person. So it is Said to Be Acquired.

• AIDS Is Caused By The Infection of  RNA Virus on Lymphocytes As A Result The Activity Of T-Helper Cells Is Deprsed.

• This Leads To The Supression Of The Immune System Hence The Name Immuno Defiency.

• As The Initial Infection Of Virus Pass The Way For The Development Of Complex Of  Disease . It is Called Syndrome.

AIDS Red Ribbon: Its an AIDS awareness ribbon, it is a symbol of solidarity of people living with HIV / AIDS.

AIDS Awareness Red Ribbon

Every year December 1st is observed as World AIDS day and is dedicated to raise awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV Infection.

Structure of HIV

Replication of HIV

Steps in the HIV Replication Cycle

  1. Fusion of the HIV cell to the host cell surface.
  2. HIV RNA, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and other viral proteins enter the host cell.
  3. Viral DNA is formed by reverse transcription.
  4. Viral DNA is transported across the nucleus and integrates into the host DNA.
  5. New viral RNA is used as genomic RNA and to make viral proteins.
  6. New viral RNA and proteins move to cell surface and a new, immature, HIV virus forms.
  7. The virus matures by protease releasing individual HIV proteins. 
Sources of HIV 

• HIV is Transmitted Through Unprotected Sexual Intercourse.

• 5-10% adults Are Infected By Sharing HIV  Infected Needles.

•  HIV  Is Tranmitted By Transfusion Of Infected Blood.

• A Pregant Woman With  HIV  can Pass The Virus To Her Foeteus During Pregnancy Or Child Birth.

• Some Times Woman Pass  HIV  To The Baby By Breast Milk.

Symptoms of AIDS / HIV Infection

Some of the late stage symptoms of HIV infection are:
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
  • Extreme and unexplained tiredness
  • Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck
  • Diarrhoea that lasts for more than a week
  • Sores of the mouth, anus, or genitals
  • Pneumonia
  • Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids
  • Memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders.
Transmission of HIV / AIDS

• Sexual Contact Both Homosexual And Hetrosexual.

• Blood Tranfusion.

• Mother To Foetus Through The Plancenta.

• Injection With Unsterile Syringes And Needles.

• Breast Feeding By Infected Mother.

Diagnosis / Detetction of HIV / AIDS

• ELISA : Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Western Blotting

• PCR : Polymerase Chain Reaction

Control / Prevention of HIV Transmission

• Syringes, Needles & Other Materials Should Be Sterlised.

• Avoiding Of Sharing Materials.

• Screening Of Blood Before Transfussion.

• Sexual Contact With Sex Workers Should Be Avoided.

• Use Of  Condoms During Sexual Contact

Treatment for HIV/ AIDS

There are 31 antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat HIV infection. These treatments do not cure people of HIV or AIDS. Rather, they suppress the virus, even to undetectable levels, but they do not completely eliminate HIV from the body.Even after taking antiretroviral drugs an infected person can transmit the virus and must continuously take antiretroviral drugs in order to maintain their health quality.

One of these include Integrase inhibitor these helps in preventing the integration of viral genome into the host DNA.

Thursday, March 5, 2009

Indian Institute of Science Entrance Exam 2009

Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is conducting Entrance Examination for Research Programmes..
Applications can be submitted Online.

For More Details Visit