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Monday, January 16, 2012

Insulin: Types, Insulin Infusion Pump Advantages, Therapy, Manufacturers & Insurance

Insulin:

Insulin is a 51 amino acid (aa) polypeptide hormone essential for normal glucose homeostasis and is therefore useful in treating diabetes. Insulin contains two polypeptide chains, A chain(21 aa) and B chain(30 aa), with three disulfide bonds. Two of these interlink the A- and B-chains, while the third one is an intra A-chain bond. initially, insulin was isolated from porcine (pig) pancreas, the advent of recombinant DNA technology helped to address the requirement for insulin more effectively. Researchers first gave an active extract of the pancreas containing insulin to a young diabetic patient in 1922, and the FDA first approved insulin in 1939. Insulin used for treatment are sourced from beef and pork pancreas as well as recombinant (human) technology. Recombinant insulin has almost completely replaced the use of insulin from other sources like pig, cattle etc. recombinant human insulin was the first licensed drug produced using recombinant DNA technology which was approved by FDA in 1982. It was developed by genentech and licensed by Eli Lilly The first recombinant human insulin was approved by the FDA in 1982.

List of some of the Current Manufacturers of Recombinant Human Insulin

Abbott Laboratories India Ltd

Eli Lilly and Company

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals

Novo Nordisk A/S

Sarabhai Ltd S (Baroda, India)

SciGen Ltd S (Australia)

Wockhardt

Biocon - Insugen

Ranbaxy - Insucare

Novo Nordisk -

Pfizer - Exubera

Shreya Life Science Ltd.

Cadilla Pharmaceuticals - HUMSTARD

USV Ltd. - Human Mixact

Sanofi – Aventis – Lantus

Lupin Ltd – Lupsulin R – 40

Zenita Life Science

BIOMM Technology – Brazil.

Gan & Lee Pharmaceutical Ltd. - China

MJ Biopharma Pvt Ltd.

Torrent Pharmaceuticals for NOVO Insulin

Getz Pharma – UAE

Insulin is produced via recombinant DNA technology in bacteria, E.coli now its produced from yeast also. In bacteria A & B chains are expressed separately and joined together. In yeast full length chain can be expressed.

Types of Insulin

There are different types of insulin, based on the mode of action it is classified into these clasess

Rapid acting Insulin: rapid acting insulin is taken prior to meal, they act quickly to minimise the increased blood sugar level. Eg: Humalog from Eli Lilly, Novorapid from Novo Nordisk

Short acting Insulin: Short acting insulin will usually be taken before meals. Short acting insulins may also be called regular or neutral insulin. It is not as fast acting as rapid acting insulin.Eg: Humulin R

Intermediate acting Insulin: Intermediate acting insulin start to act within the first hour of injecting, followed by a period of peak activity lasting up to 7 hours. Intermediate acting insulins may also be referred to as 'isophane'or 'NPH' (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulins.Eg: Hypurin Isophane

Long acting Insulin:Long acting insulin will shows its activity upto 24hrs.Eg: Lantus, Levemir

Insulin is given as injection subcutaneously using insulin pen or insulin infusion pumps.research is focusing on alternative methods or routes of insulin uptake by the body. Oral insulin, Exubera an inhalable form of recombinant human insulin, developed by pfizer, was not successful and has been discontinued because of the poor absorption rate and higher costs.

Insulin Pump / Insulin Infusion Pump - Advantages and Disadvantages

Insulin pump or insulin infusion pump is a medical device for the administration of insulin in subcutaneously for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The components of the pump includes tubing, processors, controllers, infusion set including canula for subcutaneous insertion, reservoir, etc.

Insulin pump is used as an alternative to daily multiple insulin injections. it has various advantages over other injection methods.

The major advantage is it can be programmed to pump specific amount of insulin into the body at different time intervals, or insulin dosage can be scheduled.

Precise amount of insulin can be pumped into the body, which has shown better control of blood sugar.

The insulin usage through pump can be monitored and the level of insulin use can be analyzed.

Despite of the above advantages it has certain disadvantages also, it is expensive compared to other methods of injection, pump needs to be monitored for proper functioning, keeping the pump for years can cause problem in the skin since the canula is kept inside.

Insulin Pump Therapy

Treatment of diabetes / reducing blood sugar level by administrating insulin into the body of a diabetic patient using an insulin pump, a medical device which ensures the controlled insulin delivery.

Insulin Pump Manufactures

Major players in insulin pump manufacturing are Animas corporation, Disetronic Medicals, Insulet Corporation, Medtronic Diabetes, Nipro Diabetes, etc.

Insulin infusion pump insurance

Since insulin pumps are costly, insurance cover is available for the pumps. Insurance is covered under durable medical equipment.

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