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Sunday, May 19, 2013

Top 5 Revolutionary Biotech Innovations



Recombinant DNA Technology:

The advent of Recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the biotech and healthcare sector. The impact of this technology is un-imaginable.

recombinant DNA technology

The DNA/gene of interest or foreign DNA can be inserted into a Vector / plasmid and can be expressed in suitable host (Bacterial, mammalian or Viral Systems) to generate the product of interest.
One such product is recombinant human insulin. recombinant human Insulin was the first drug to be licensed, and was developed by Genentech and licensed by Eli Lilly Company.
List of few rDNA technology Products:
  • Erythropoietin (EPO)
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
  • alpha-glactosidase A
  • alpha-L-iduronidase (rhIDU; laronidase)
  • N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (rhASB; galsulfase)
  • Dornase alfa,
  • Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)
  • Glucocerebrosidase
  • Interferon (IF) Interferon-beta-1a,  Interferon beta-1b
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

PCR or Polymerase chain reaction was developed Kary Mullis in 1983. One of the breakthrough developments in the field of Biotechnology. Development of PCR made genetic identification (Disease diagnosis, Forensic Identification, etc.) a lot more easier than before.

PCR

PCR performed using a thermo cycler, involves the repeated cycling of heating and cooling of the reaction DNA denaturation and enzymatic reaction for the amplification of DNA. minute quantities of DNA can be amplified and detected using this powerful technique.
Applications of PCR
  1. Disease Diagnosis
  2. Forensic Science
  3. Amplification & Quantification of DNA

Stem Cells as Regenerative Medicine

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which can differentiate to perform specialized functions...There are two different types of stem cells embryonic and adult stem cells.

stem cell treatment

Stem cells therapy can be used for treating nuero degenerative diseases like Alzhimer’s disease, Parkinson's diseases, etc.
Stem Cell Therapy has shown to give promising results and there are no other alternatives in some cases, but most of the therapy procedures are in the initial phase of clinical trials and need more study to analyse the results before it can be applied in wide variety of disease conditions.
As there are many controversies involved in it, lot more research need to be done before it can be applied routinely, Stem cell therapy has the potential to revolutionize the way we treat diseases.

Genome Sequencing Technology:

Genome Sequencing technology has helped to unlock the secrets of the genetic code. Nowadays complete genome sequencing is possible. By sequencing the complete genome enormous amount of information can be obtained. with the advancement of bioinformatics tools, analysing the genome sequence and comparing with genome of different species are possible and easy.

genome sequencing

DNA sequencing can be used to find out the sequence of individual genes or group of genes, full chromosomes or the complete genome. Sequencing provide the order of nucleotides in the DNA or RNA of the cell which can be used for molecular biology research or to make disease diagnosis and treatment easy.

Innovative Drugs:
The way we treat diseases is changing day by day, with the advancement of better therapies and vaccines to boost the healthcare sector. One of the top innovation to be pointed out is the Magic Bullet.


MonoclonalAb


Magic Bullet:
Ehrlich is the scientist who developed the Magic Bullet. The compound which only targets the bacteria which will not harm other cells. Nowadays we can see Monoclonal antibodies which is used in the treat many disease which is to some extent is the modified form of Magic Bullet. Monoclonal antibodies which specifically targets certain type of cells or proteins and initiates cellular immune response to fight against the disease.

List of Some of the FDA approved Therapuetical Monoclonal Antibodies

Adalimumab – for Autoimmune disorders

Bevacizumab – for Colorectal Cancer

Daclizumab – for Transplant Rejection

Ipilimumab - for Melanoma

There are many other Biotechnological Innovations, but i feel these are the five innovations that played major role in revolutionizing biotechnology and healthcare sector.

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